Architecture

Dumbbells

by Don Friedman on March 18, 2019


One of the archetypical New York buildings is the “dumbbell tenement,” which was named after its shape, not its occupants or owners. It’s worth looking at what these buildings are and why the gradual reduction in their numbers is not a bad thing.

That’s the corner of 19th Street (left) and Eight Avenue (right), looking east. (As always, click on the picture to enlarge it.) I want to discuss the five-story building just east of the one-story empty corner retail building and the two ¬†five-story buildings that are three buildings south of the corner (one with Murphy Bed Express in the ground-floor retail space, the other with the Square Deli). These can best be described as “partial dumbbells,” but they illustrate the issues nicely.

The basic problem is that NYC lots tend to be narrow (along the street front) and deep (perpendicular to the street) and that, until the 1900s, the majority of residential buildings covered one lot. The standard lot is 25 feet by 100 feet (7.6m by 30.5m) but a lot of rowhouse lots are narrower because developer bought a bunch of lots and redivided them. If you had four standard lots, you could combine them into one big 100 foot square and the redivide them into 5 lots (giving 20 foot wide houses) or 6 lots (giving 16 foot, 8 inch wide houses). Tenements typically were one standard lot wide but could be narrower. In order to fit more people into a tenement, you want to construct the building deeper, but with windows only on the front and rear facades, minimizing the size of the rear yard meant that a building had extremely limited provisions for light and air.

Someone had the bright idea of carving away at the sides of the building – the windowless lot-line walls – to create air shafts that were ambitiously called “light courts.” This idea was enshrined in 1879 in what has become known as the Old Tenement Law, which required that every room have a window to the outside, even if it was only in one of those narrow shafts. It’s worth noting that, prior to the 1879 law, it was legal to have interior rooms without windows. If you carve out a shaft on each side of a rectangular building, the building plan is shaped like a dumbbell – wide at each end and narrow in the middle – and the building type got a nickname. Narrower tenements might only have a shaft on one side, leading to the partial dumbbell shape I mentioned above. Let’s look at the examples on an 1895 map:



North is up the page, Eighth Avenue on the left, West 19th Street at the top, and West 18th Street at the bottom. The numbers written in the street are the addresses and the numbers written in the corner of each building are the heights in stories. The three buildings I mentioned in the photo are 278 West 19th Street, and 168 and 170 Eighth Avenue. For 278 West, you can see the deeper shaft in the middle and the entire rear portion is slightly narrower, so that there could be side-wall windows. The problem was that most of those extra windows originally faced another brick wall less than three feet away. The demolition of the top two stories of the corner building has opened things up a bit, but that corner could be built higher again at any time. In 1895, 168 and 170 were on a single lot, showing how developers would combine and redivide lots. Again, they have narrow side “yards” in the rear: 170 facing south toward 168, and 168 on both sides. If you live in the rear of either of those buildings, a bunch of your windows face the other building very close by.

Take a look at 251, 237, and 235 West 18th Street to see the classic dumbbell shape.

It took 22 years to get the law replaced with what’s called the New Tenement Law, which encouraged combining lots and creating real light courts. But the city is stuck with tens of thousands of these buildings with horribly inadequate windows. They were cheaply built and many are past the end of their useful life spans, but they serve now, as they did when built, as effective ways to squeeze a lot of people onto single lots.

Discarded

March 17, 2019

Sometimes you just don’t need the old doors any more. That’s the side facade of the Joyce Theater. We’ve got three infill areas of brick: The former ordinary door a few feet to the right of where the fancy front-facade veneer ends. The door was a step up from the sidewalk and the granite step […]

Read the full article →

Art Imitating Life

March 11, 2019

Gotham City, where Batman resides, has been a funhouse-mirror reflection of New York for 80 years. Even the name is a reference to New York. Gotham is dark, with narrow alleys fronted by ornate (possibly over-ornate) tall buildings. The ledges and roofs of those buildings, of course, give Batman a place to stand and look […]

Read the full article →

The Discussion Will Be Fascinating

March 4, 2019

The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat – a group that treats skyscrapers as an integral part of architecture, engineering, and urban planning – is planning on having a discussion of the origins of skyscrapers at their upcoming 10th World Congress this fall. The discussion – officially, the First Skyscraper/Skyscraper Firsts Symposium – is […]

Read the full article →

When You’re Right, You’re Right

February 27, 2019

Signage seen in the Port Authority Bus Terminal, and it’s hard to argue. It’s probably worth noting that beneath its hideous 1970s renovation, the south wing dates to 1950 and was originally a kind of watered-down moderne.

Read the full article →

Naming Conventions

February 27, 2019

That’s the Union Traction Building in Indianapolis, according to the text on the photo. The building was constructed in 1904 and this picture is probably from 1907. The office building is Daniel Burnham’s usual handsome neoclassicism, but the interesting part of it is the shed behind. That was the largest interurban station ever built. Interurbans […]

Read the full article →

The Little Things

February 26, 2019

That’s the view out of a classroom window of an old NYC elementary school, pre-renovation. Why shouldn’t there be a miniature terra-cotta dragon crawling on the wall?

Read the full article →

The Tombs, Sort Of

February 21, 2019

That vaguely art-decoish building is the Criminal Courts building for New York County, where I served on jury duty last week. (There’s no picture-taking allowed on the inside, so let me simply say that the interior was built to high standards and has been maintained to low ones.) There are four nearly identical wings, but […]

Read the full article →

Greater Than The Sum Of The Parts

February 17, 2019

This collection of pictures¬†by Austin Hodges – the last remaining houses from rows and blocks that are otherwise demolished – is slightly misdescribed in the linked article. I don’t believe that any of those buildings are half of a house. Rather, some of them were part of rows that were designed as an overall whole. […]

Read the full article →

The Inevitable Conclusion

February 12, 2019

That’s the Commodore Hotel in 1919, with Grand Central Terminal on the left. The bridge in front connects the southern portion of Park Avenue to the elevated bypass around the terminal and then to the northern potion of the avenue. (The space under the bridge is called Pershing Square; the space on top of the […]

Read the full article →